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The Times Tables

The times tables for 1 to 10

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What Is Multiplication?

Multiplication can be defined in the following way: Assume that you have a number a (where a can be any number). If you add a to itself b times, that can be written like this:

a + a + + ab times

This can be tiresome in the long run, especially when b becomes large. That’s where multiplication enters the picture. By definition, the sum above can also be written like this:

a + a + + ab times = b × a

This means that a added to itself b times is the same as a multiplied by b.

The numbers that are multiplied together are called factors, and the answer is called a product.



factor ×factor = product

This might look a little odd—it might not be how you learned about multiplication before. So here’s an example to clarify.

Example 1

You want to add 3 to itself 5 times

This can be written as

3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 5 times

but if you use the definition above, it can also be written as

5 × 3 = 15

Multiplication problems with whole numbers (integers) between 1 and 10 are organized in the times tables. You should learn this table by heart.


Three Important Rules for Multiplication

a × b = b × a. It does not matter what order the numbers are written in when you multiply—you get the same answer either way!
Anything multiplied by 0 is 0. For example, 5 × 0 × 20 = 0.
If you multiply something by 1, it doesn’t change. For example, 32 × 1 = 32.

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